Wendell Old Home Day


a newspaper clipping from the files of Dick Chaisson in Athol suggests that Wendell’s OHD may not have been started until 1922 (it refers to the 1937 event as the 15th Wendell OHD, although it isn’t clear whether the tradition was continuous or there may have been breaks in it over those 15 years)

according to Ted Lewis, the event continued into the 1950s, and was generally run by the Grange and/or the Ladies Aid Society – it was revived in the late 1960s

according to Annie Diemand Bucci, Pat Judice was the person most responsible for starting the event again in the late 60s

video of late 1960s Old Home Day in Wendell by Lois Ellsworth, 2675 Simpson Mill Rd., Mt Airy, NC 27030 (see

comment by loisdedois (Lois Johnson Ellsworth), who posted it:

  • “This particular Old Home Day was the first of it’s specific kind, thought up and promoted by Pat Judice, others, and myself, brainstorming new directions for the town to go into, seeing as how we had so many new “creative back to the earth” folks who had moved into town. It certainly was a wonderful day, and seemed to bridge the gap between the old and new families, bringing a sense of understanding for all! GO WENDELL, a great little town.”+ “Looking to get this into the email boxes of all those families who are represented here, the Noyes, Fisher, Ellis, Lewis, Tenny, Wetherby, Burnett, Carey, Wilder, Pratt, Johnson, Ricketts, Diemand,Stebbins, Hildreth, and more, all these familiar wonderful families who make up this quaint, unforgettable and diverse home town of ours. Please forward this to anyone you might think would like it. Thanks, Loisdedois”

Wendell Post articles on Old Home Days:

1977 invitation to participate


founded by Frank W. Rollins (1860-1915), governor of NH, in the 1890s

  • on CowHampshire history blog, June 8, 2008:  background on the Rollins family – “Frank West Rollins, son of Edward H. & Ellen Elizabeth (West) Rollins was born 24 Feb 1860 in Concord NH and d. 27 October 1915 in Boston MA. He is buried at Blossom Hill Cemetery in Concord NH. He received his B.S. degree from MIT, and a degree of A.M. from Dartmouth College. He then studied law at Harvard University. He practiced law in Concord NH, and was head of the firm of E.H. Rollins & Sons, bankers of Boston MA, New York, and San Francisco. He was also a director of the Great Western Power Company. He was Adjutant General of NH from 1890-95; President of the State Senate from 1895-6, and from 1899-1901 he was Governor of New Hampshire. He was a trustee of St. Paul’s School in Concord NH, the Concord Public Library, the Orphan’s Home of Concord, and MIT. He was a former president of the New England Business Federation, and was President of the New Hampshire Good Roads League, the Church Settlement Society, and was a member of the Boston Chamber of Commerce. He belonged to many clubs including the University Union, Exchange, Authors, Dartmouth, Technology of Boston, the Wonolancet, Snow Shoe and Beaver Meadow Golf of Concord NH. He married 6 Dec 1882 to Katherine Wallace Pecker, dau of Frank H. & Anna H. (Wallace) Pecker. She b. 10 Aug 1861 in VT. He was an author of several books including “The Ring in the Cliff (1877), The Twin Hussars,” “Break-o-Da Tales” (1895), “The Lady of Violets,” (1898). Today the Governor Frank West House can be found at 135 N. State Street in Concord NH. His office was located at 19 Milk Street in Boston MA.
  • and piece by Janice Brown on “New Hampshire: The Origin of “Old Home Week” and the Rollins Family”
  • his obit in the NY Times mentions that he pleaded guilty to customs fraud after a 1910 incident after he returned from England on the Lusitania
  • New Hampshire’s Opportunity,” an essay by Rollins in The New England Magazine Volume 22 Issue 5 (July 1897) in which he sets out his vision for how NH should and could attract summer tourists as its next big economic opportunity



This is a page of data about the Lewis family who moved to Wendell, Massachusetts and bought an old farm in 1932.  The status of this page is FRAGMENTARY.

Ted Lewis’s parents:

Arthur Benjamin Lewis

  • b. Eastport, Maine, 1897
  • served in “USNRF” in WWI, according to his gravestone in Orange
  • m. Inez French in Kennebunk in 1921
  • living in West Hartford, CT in 1930
  • in Wendell by 1940
  • 1942: in the “old men’s draft,” he was working in Orange for the Union Tool Company (Union Twist Drill?), acc. to his WWII draft registration
  • d. in Rutland in 1962 @ age 64

Inez French

  • b. St. George, New Brunswick, 1903
  • still living at home in 1921, shortly before marrying Arthur in Maine, when she was 18 and he was 24
  • in West Hartford in 1930, Wendell by 1935
  • d. in Wendell in 1988 @ age 85

Arthur’s parents were George Edward Lewis (1856-1944) and Maude E. Rea (1871-1969)
Inez’s were Sidney French (1865-?) and Christie (Kit) Elizabeth Leavitt (1871-1920)

in 1940 U.S. Census, when the family is living in Wendell:

  • Arthur, 42, farmer, owns home, value $1000 (more than most others in immediate vicinity)
  • income $1200 that year (also more than others in neighborhood)
  • Inez, 36 (circled X next to her name and many others on pg. – not sure what that indicates)
  • Dale, 17?, b. in Maine
  • Ruth, 15, b. Rhode Island
  • Arthur Jr., 13, b. CT
  • Ralph, 12, b. CT
  • Theodore, 11, b. CT
  • Harry, 10, b. CT
  • Jeanette, 8 mos., b. MA
  • the Wirths were still across the street but no longer listed as farming


This is a page of data about the Austrian-born Wirth family who farmed in Wendell starting in the early 20th c.  The status of this page is FRAGMENTARY.


This is a page of data about the Hudson family of Wendell, Massachusetts.  The status of this page is SOLIDIFYING.

according to his death certificate, Nathan E. Hudson was b. in Hingham, Mass. – parents were Joseph Hudson (b. Cohasset) and Elizabeth Eldridge (b. Cohasset)

according to the Wood family tree in, Nathan Eldredge Hudson was born 12/19/1829, the third of six sons (which may explain his decision to move west in search of a farm)

from 1860 US Census:

  • Nathan is listed as “Elbridge Hudson,” living in Wendell with his mother, Elizabeth
  • right next door is Nathan Elbridge (49), Eliza (51), and Nathan L. (14) – uncle Nathan is listed as a “mariner”!  I’m guessing this is Elizabeth’s brother, presumably also from Hingham – his property is worth $1000, Elizabeth’s is worth $450 – in the 1850 US Census, uncle Nathan and family are living in Hingham, where he’s working as a fisherman, so they moved to Wendell sometime in the 1850s

from Mass. census:


  • Nathan E. Hudson (b. c.1830 in Hingham) and his mother Elizabeth (68) are living in Wendell – Nathan is still single at 35 – he was registered for the draft in July 1863


  • at 39, Nathan Hudson m. Melvina French, 33, of Ware (strangely, the record of their marriage is X’d out in the handwritten town record)

from US Census records:


  • Nathan (40) and Melvina (34, née French) Hudson and Nathan’s mother Elizabeth (72) are living on a modest farm worth $475 with personal property worth $160
  • they had 40 improved acres, 20 unimproved, 15 other, with equipment worth $50
  • also had one horse and two milk cows worth a total of $160
  • they produced 20 bushels of Indian corn, 65 bushels of potatoes, 100 lbs of butter, 9 tons of hay, and slaughtered animals worth $35, for a total of $298 farm income (definitely on the low end of the scale for Wendell farmers in that year)
  • uncle Nathan Eldridge and aunt Eliza are living next to Theodore Bemis in 1870 – their land is worth $1000, personal property $400 – they had 25 acres of improved land, 20 acres of woods, 80 “other,” and $100 worth of equipment – they also paid out $50 for farm labor – they had 1 horse, 4 milk cows, 2 other cattle, 2 sheep, and a pig, for a value of $595 – they produced 30 bushels of corn and 20 of oats, 10 pounds of tobacco (the only ones growing tobacco in Wendell that year!), 125 lbs. of potatoes, 250 lbs. of butter, and 12 tons of hay – they also seem to have made 10 lbs. of molasses, for a total farm income of $474 – so they were quite substantial and progressive farmers, unlike nephew Nathan

Calvin Cushman Hudson born in Wendell 1870

Cora Laurinda Hudson was born March 27, 1872 in Wendell


  • Nathan and Melvina still in Wendell, with son Calvin C. (9) and daughter Cora (8)
  • a 23-yr-old boarder, Charles Wyman [sp?], a laborer, is also living with them
  • ag census shows the following farm activities:
  • 25 tilled acres, 30 acres meadows/pastures, 20 acres woodland – incl. 22 mown and 3 unmown acres of grassland + 10 acres of hayfield
  • farm value hard to read ($100?  $800?) but definitely on low end of scale
  • farm equipment valued at just $10 (also comparatively very low) and livestock at $75 (mid-range)
  • no farm labor is shown as  being hired in that year – so was their boarder working on someone else’s farm?
  • value of farm products “sold, consumed, or on hand” was $175, which was above the average
  • just 1 horse, 2 milk cows, 1 “other” livestock
  • 2 calves dropped in 1879, 1 cow purchased, 1 sold living
  • the Hudsons made 100 lbs of butter (about average)
  • had 12 barnyard fowl which produced 40 doz. eggs
  • 1 acre of buckwheat produced 15 bushels
  • 10 bushels of Indian corn, 4 bushels of beans
  • 1 acre of potatoes produced 60 bushels
  • 12 apple trees produced 20 bushels
  • 2 pear trees produced 3 bushels
  • total value of orchard products was $25, fairly respectable for Wendell
  • also cut 20 cords of wood and “sold or consumed” $40 worth of forest products

1888:  Uncle Nathan Eldridge d. of heart disease at 77, leaving a widow – death record notes he was born in Harwich, Mass.

there’s quite an extensive bio of Nathan E. Hudson and his family in the 1895 Biographical review of Franklin County (pp. 372-75)


  • the same family grouping, minus the boarder, is still there in 1900
  • Calvin is now 29, Cora 28, both still unmarried and living at home
  • page is cut off so the annual farm income can’t be seen


Melvina died (according to cemetery listing for South Cemetery in Wendell)


  • Nathan died May 13 at 75 of tuberculosis – listed as widower


  • Calvin died on June 14 of pneumonia and bronchitis


  • Cora, now 38, is living by herself on the family farm, listed as a farmer on a “General Farm”


  • Cora, 47, still listed as a farmer on a “Home Farm”
  • the Wirth family is living next door by this time


  • Cora, 58, still living by herself on a “General Farm”
  • Wirths are on one side, Powlings (Ted Lewis’s wife’s family) on the other


  • Cora, 68, has left the farm and is rooming with the Clark family on West Street
  • Ray Clark is driving a school bus;  his wife Louise is a supervisor of old age pensions (a WPA job, perhaps?)
  • there is another boarder, 23-yr-old Harry Pratt of Wendell, who is working as a logger/lumberman

a Cora Hudson died in Montague in 1950 – not sure if it’s the same woman

cemetery listing shows Cora’s death date as 1950



This is a page of data about the Hager (sometimes spelled Hagar) family who lived in Wendell, Massachusetts in the early decades of the 19th century.  The status of this page is IN PROGRESS.

Ancestry overview page from Breidenbach family tree

  1. Martin b. in Marlborough in 1778 (father was William, mother ??)
  2. m. Hannah Fairbank in Sudbury in 1807
  3. d. in Deerfield @ 76 in 1855

six children:

  • Martin Hagar (1808 – 1880)
  • Charles Hager (1809 – 1890)
  • Otis Hagar (1811 – 1833)
  • Elizabeth Hagar (1814 – 1895)
  • Hannah Morse Hagar (1815 – 1849)
  • Lydia Caroline Hagar (1817-??)

Charles Hager overview from Ancestry

  • b. 1809 in Wendell
  • m. Myra Holden Felton in 1838
  • living in Deerfield by 1880
  • d. 1890 in Deerfield, @ 80

1810 US Census:

  • living in Wendell (Hampshire County at that point?), 7 people in household

1820 US Census:

  • living in Wendell, 8 people in household, 1 engaged in agriculture

1840 US Census:

  • living in Wendell, 6 people in household, 1 engaged in agriculture

1850 US Census, non-population schedule, shows Charles on the following farm in Wendell:

  • 45 improved acres, 20 unimproved, total value $1500 w/ $100 worth of equipment (acreage is on the low side for Wendell that year, value is closer to average, so he was presumably farming quite productively)
  • 1 horse, 4 dairy cows, 2 oxen, 2 other cattle, 1 pig, for a value of $320
  • grew 50 bushels of Indian corn, 5 bushels of oats, 2 bushels of peas/beans, 100 lbs. of potatoes, 23 bushels of barley, 100 lbs of butter, 20 tons of hay
  • sold $40 worth of “home-made manufactures” (was this things like palm-leaf hats?) and $52 worth of meat

1855 Mass. Census:

  • Martin Hager 77
  • Charles Hager 45
  • Myra Hager 44
  • Dexter Hager 16
  • Fanny Hager 13
  • Liddia Hager 10
  • Otis Hager 6
  • Martin Hager 4 (looks as though he may have come back to the hill towns – there’s a Martin C. Hager farming in New Salem in the 1880 census, although it doesn’t look as though he was actually growing very much)
  • Electa Hager 40

“tobacco sash”

on tobacco cultivation in the area:

tobacco had been raised for private use in Hadley since 1800, but was cultivated much more intensively after the Civil War when farmers “fell victim to competition and their own speculation” (p273) and shifted to larger-scale commercial crops (like tobacco) rather than their previously diversified farming (Hardin, “Poles and Puritans,” in Miller, ed., Cultivating a Past:  Essays on the History of Hadley, Massachusetts, 2009)

a number of unsuccessful early (colonial) attempts were made to grow tobacco in Mass. and Conn., as well as NY and Penn. – “As late as 1801 the entire New England crop was estimated at only twenty thousand pounds, or the amount which Virginia exported in 1620.” (p281) – Mass. colonial records for 1629 note that tobacco “doth hardly produce the freight and customs duty” (qtd p282) – there was also a Puritan prejudice against tobacco as a stimulant, but the climate and soils were the greater factor – dev’t of cigar wrapper industry in NE began about 1825, “subsequent to the introduction of cigars and cigar leaf” (p282) but even this has to be heavily fertilized in NE (Jacobstein, The Tobacco Industry in the United States, 1907)


This is a page of data about the Johnson family, who were among the earliest European-American settlers of Wendell, Massachusetts.  The status of this page is IN PROGRESS.

Everts doesn’t mention this family as among the early settlers, but they clearly were


here’s info from the Johnson family tree on RootsWeb:


1. [CS: this is Ebeneezer Sr. – see below] JOHNSON.

He was married to Prudence. JOHNSON and Prudence had the following children:

2 i. Rachel JOHNSON was born on 1 May 1777 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.

3 ii. Nathaniel JOHNSON was born on 20 Jan 1779 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.

  • 4 iii. Ebenezer JOHNSON (born on 11 Jan 1781).

5 iv. Prudence JOHNSON was born on 28 Mar 1783 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.

6 v. Kendall JOHNSON was born on 15 Jun 1785 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.

  • 7 vi. David JOHNSON (born on 27 Oct 1787).
  • 8 vii. Ruth JOHNSON (born on 25 Jan 1790).
  • 9 viii. Seneca JOHNSON (born on 8 Jul 1792).


4. Ebenezer JOHNSON (-1) was born on 11 Jan 1781 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts. He Int. Marriage on 23 Jun 1800 in Wendell, Franklin,


He was married to Mary in 1800.

7. David JOHNSON (-1) was born on 27 Oct 1787 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts. He Int. Marriage on 15 May 1815 in Wendell, Franklin,

Massachusetts. Certificates of marriages published from under the hands of Town Clerk of Wendell, MA, 25 Apr 1787 to 15 September 1890.

of Wendell, Mass.


He was married to Charlotte GOLDTHWAIT in 1815 in , Franklin, Massachusetts.

David JOHNSON and Charlotte GOLDTHWAIT had the following children:

10 i. Rachel Diana JOHNSON was born on 9 Jan 1820 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.

11 ii. Kendall Augustin JOHNSON was born on 25 Mar 1825 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.

12 iii. Sylvanus Edwin JOHNSON was born on 3 Aug 1828 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts.


8. Ruth JOHNSON (-1) was born on 25 Jan 1790 in Wendell, Franklin,

Massachusetts. Certificates of marriages published from under the hands of

Town Clerk of Wendell, MA, 25 Apr 1787 to 15 September 1890.

of Wendell, Mass.

She was married to William HARRIS in 1811 in , Franklin, Massachusetts.

William HARRIS Int. Marriage on 19 Jan 1811 in Wendell, Franklin,

Massachusetts. Certificates of marriages published from under the hands of

Town Clerk of Wendell, MA, 25 Apr 1787 to 15 September 1890.

of Moretown, Vt.

9. Seneca JOHNSON (-1) was born on 8 Jul 1792 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts. He Int. Marriage on 21 Oct 1826 in Wendell, Franklin,

Massachusetts. Certificates of marriages published from under the hands of Town Clerk of Wendell, MA, 25 Apr 1787 to 15 September 1890.

of Carmel, Maine.

History of The Town of Sunderland, Massachusetts, by John Montague Smith, prepared by Henry W. Taft & Abbie T. Montague. Press of E. A. Hall & Co., Greenfield, Mass., 1899. p. 246.

of Maine

He was married to Lucinda WILDER (daughter of Bezaleel WILDER and Sarah ADAMS) in Oct 1826 in , Franklin, Massachusetts.

Lucinda WILDER was born on 21 May 1798 in Wendell, Franklin, Massachusetts. She died in 1880.

Certificates of marriages published from under the hands of Town Clerk of Wendell, MA, 25 Apr 1787 to 15 September 1890.

of Wendell, Mass.

there are two Johnsons in “Shutesbury” (poss. including Wendell) in the 1771 tax valuation:

  • Joseph Johnson
    • 1 acre of pasture, capable of keeping 1 cow
    • 1 acre of tillage
    • 3 acres of “English and upland mowing land” on which he produced 2 tons of “English and upland hay”
    • no house
    • 10 bushels of grain produced
    • 1 horse, 2 oxen, 1 cow, 4 goats and sheep, 1 swine
    • property assessed as worth 2 pounds
  • Eben’r (Ebeneezer)
    • no houses, tillage
    • 1 acre of English/upland mowing land producing 1 ton of English/upland hay
    • 1 cow
    • no value showing for property yet

this seems to be the Ebeneezer who was cultivating land in 1771:

b. c.1743?

Wendell birth records show: “Mr. Ebenezer Johnson and wife Prudence their Children’s Births:”

  • Rachel b. May 1, 1777
  • Nathaniel b. Jan. 20, 1779
  • Ebenezer b. Jan. 11, 1781
  • Prudence b. March 28, 1783
  • Kendall b. June 15, 1785
  • David b. Oct. 27, 1787
  • Ruth b. Jan. 23, 1790
  • Seneca b. July 8, 1792

looks as though Ebenezer Jr. married Ruth Washburn Dec. 14, 1804

d. Moretown, Washington County, VT, Nov. 23, 1826

youngest son Seneca is farming in Carmel, Maine (near Bangor) by 1850 – farm was worth $1500, well above the average

he married Lucinda Wilder from Wendell and their children were born in Maine, suggesting the couple struck off into new territory looking for land of their own


This is a page about the Diemand family of Wendell, Massachusetts, who have been farming here since the 1930s.  The status of this page is IN PROGRESS.


This is a page about the Lewis family, who began farming in Wendell in 1932.  The status of this page is IN PROGRESS.


the Lewises bought their farm in 1932, probably from the town, which had taken it for taxes

the previous owner was Cora Hudson, who continued to live for a while in the old district schoolhouse by permission of Ted Lewis’s parents

Ted believes the Hudsons built the house after the big fire that burned much of the western side of town (date not certain)


This is a page about Wendell doctor, postmaster, justice of the peace, and farmer Lucius Cook.  The status of this page is SOLIDIFYING.

Lucius Cook (1814-1857):

ref. to Lucius Cook in The New England Farmer (1853)









interesting that the Mass. State Board of Agriculture was formed the year before (1852)

from Amherst genealogical records:

  • parents were James and Martha Cook
  • siblings were Celina (b. 1811), Ira (b. 1812), and Moody (b. 1916)
  • Lucius was born Oct. 8, 1814 in Amherst
  • “physician at Wendell”
  • married to Fidelia Hayward on Aug. 19, 1840 in Shutesbury

there are two James Cooks in New Salem in the 1771 Mass. tax valuation, both of them quite prosperous (one very much so) – was this possibly Lucius’s family, and did they move down to the valley from the uplands at some point?
there are also quite a few Cooks in Hadley in 1771 (but then, it’s quite a common name)

a James Cook m. Martha Moodey in Pelham, March 1, 1810

635 – Edward Payson (Rust, I think), s. Charles & Celinda (Backus), March 3, 1845, at West Amh., lived in 1850, adopted by Lucius Cook of Wendell. [JAS]
in the 1865 Mass. census Edward is living in Worthington with:

  • Oscar R Cushman 29 (farmer)
  • Dianthe L Cushman 28 (farmer’s wife)
  • Amelia R Cushman 66 (housework)
  • Edward P Rust 20 (farmer)

in the 1880 U.S. Census:

  • he’s 35, living in Brattleboro and working for an organ shop (Estey’s, presumably)
  • he’s married to a woman named Fanny who is 8 years older than he is (43), and also from Mass.

in the 1900 U.S. Census, the couple is living in Mansfield, MA (Bristol County) (Ancestry thinks their name is “Ract”)

  • he’s working as a Railroad flagman in 1900

he appears in the 1913 Amherst directory as “Woodcarver”
so, an interesting case of someone going between agricultural, artisanal, and industrial kinds of work

it looks as though Lucius was Wendell’s first postmaster, from 1841-46

from 1850 U.S. Census:

  • Lucius Cook, 35 (so born abt 1815), physician, owned property worth $1250, b. Mass.
  • wife Fidelia H., 34, b. Mass.
  • female (servant, presumably) Alfreda Blodgett, 16, b. Mass.
  • Edward P. Cook, 5, b. Mass.

from his death record (1857):

  • Lucius Cook, b. Oct. 9, 1814, in Amherst
  • married Nov. 30, 1837, in Pelham by Rev. J. Bent to Fidelia Hayward of Plainfield
  • he died Oct. 9, 1857 in Erving
  • Remarks: “Physician at Wendell”
  • parents: James and Martha Cook

Fidelia was born April 10, 1816 in Plainfield

  • her parents were Stephen and Jenet (from birth records, Plainfield)
  • died 1897 at 81 of “senile asthenia” at home in Plainfield
  • parents listed as Stephen Hayward of Concord, Mass. and Jenette Bisbee of Plainfield
  • she was a poet and editor who published some of Emily Dickinson’s work in the Springfield Republican, where she was literary editor – see Judith Scholes, “Emily Dickinson and Fidelia Hayward Cooke’s Springfield Republican” in The Emily Dickinson Journal, Volume 23, Number 1, 2014, pp. 1-31

here’s a memorial to Dr. Cook in The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume 59








from Franklin District Medical Society records:

Dr. Lucius Cook commenced practice in Wendell, Franklin Co., about 1840. He is believed to have been from Amherst, Hampshire Co., and was considered eminent both as a physician and surgeon. Some years after his settlement at Wendell he removed to Miller’s Falls, where he continued to reside until his death, about 1858, at the probable age of fifty-five to sixty years. He left no children. He is remembered as a stoutly-built and very corpulent man. He was something of a pettifogger in the law, and held the office of justice of the peace for several years.

(text also found here)

searching for him in the records of the Harvard Medical School
Harvard University. Catalogue of the officers and students of the University in Cambridge, for the acadmical year 1839-40. (Cambridge [Mass.], 1839) Page 12.

Cambridge [Mass.]: :Folsom, Wells, and Thurston, printers to the University., 1840.
at American Antiquarian Society

from Greenfield Gazette and Courier, Oct. 18, 1902 (via Newspaper Archive):

“The Goldthwaite homestead, better known perhaps as the Dr. Lucius Cook place, has been sold. It Is said the purchaser plans to move the house off and build a hotel on the site.”

North Quabbin

Materials about the histories of food and farming in the nine-town North Quabbin region of north-central Massachusetts.

NOTE:  The site is still in its beta phase, and so far it only contains materials relating to one North Quabbin town, Wendell.  Some resources about Athol and Orange are beginning to be added.  More resources will develop here over time.